Frame moulding is the term used to describe material that is cut and joined to be assembled into a picture frame. Hand carved picture frames, gold picture frames and metal picture frames are among the thousands of different frame styles available. Wood and metal are the materials most commonly used to make moulding and are offered in a variety of sizes and finishes.
Liners are usually linen covered moulding used with paintings to create a space between the painting and the final outside frame. The linen covering can be of a variety of different materials and colours. They often have a silver, gold or other coloured inside lip.
Matting is the term used to describe the window-cut material placed around an image on paper within a frame. It serves as a spacer to allow the artwork to expand and contract with changes in humidity and to separate the artwork from the glass. Matting comes in a variety of colours and is chosen to complement the colour and design of the artwork. It makes the overall size of the finished piece larger. Matting can be made from a variety of materials such as paper, cardboard, fibrous materials, etc. An archival quality matt will offer protection, ensuring that your art will last for years to come. Archival matting is either made from acid-free cotton fibres or from a chemically treated paper to neutralise acid that naturally occurs in paper. Archival matt boards actively protect art from the damaging effects of time as well as from common pollutants that yellow, fade and damage your art. Archival matting slows this deterioration and helps extend the life of your art.
Glazing is a general term used to describe the transparent material covering the artwork (other than paintings) as a means of protection. Glazing includes regular clear picture glass, anti-reflective (chemically coated to reduce reflection), non-glare (acid etched to help reduce glare), and conservation glass (specially formulated to help filter the damaging effects of UV light). There are also acrylic glazing products that are lighter in weight and are also available in the non-glare and UV filtering varieties. Glass is easier to clean and more scratch resistant than acrylic products.
Mounting is a process by which artwork is attached to a board. Dry mounting, wet mounting and spray mounting are ways to prevent the artwork from bubbling or waving in the frame. Artwork of any value is not generally mounted because it greatly affects any resale value. Dry and wet mountings are permanent processes and not recommended for archival materials. Museum mounting, commonly known as hinging, is when the art is attached with paper hinges to the acid free backing board. The art hangs free, allowing it to expand or contract with humidity.
A key component of professional picture framing is the ability to preserve the original condition of the items. This applies both at the time they are being framed and in the event that the framing, mounting and matting is removed at a later date. Preservation picture framing, also know as conservation picture framing and museum quality framing, uses materials and techniques that help protect against the effects of sunlight, acid and pollutants that have been shown to yellow, fade and otherwise damage the art. Archival matting, hinging and UV protective glazing (glass or acrylic) are most commonly used to increase the longevity of framed items.